UNAM
Academic Writing
DGECI

Tutoriales, ejercicios y recursos

  • La estructura del artículo de investigación
  • Estilo de la escritura académica
  • El proceso de publicación
  • Sitios de Consulta

The structure of the scientific article

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Abstract

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Introduction

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Materials & Methods

Results

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Figures & Tables

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Sitios de consulta

Writing essays

Citing and referencing

Style guides (APA, Chicago Manual of Style, MLA)

English grammar

Los puntos de vista y opiniones expresados en estos videos y recursos son los de los autores y no necesariamente reflejan la posición oficial de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México


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The structure of the scientific article

Abstract

Introduction

Article introductions by Anglophone authors usually follow the “Create a Research Space” or CARS model, which is composed of three moves. Find a description and example of each move in the following links:

Materials & Methods

Results

Figures & Tables

Discussion

Conclusion

The structure of paragraphs

Verb tenses in research papers

What verb tense should you use in each section of your research paper? Check out these simple guides:

Passive and active voice in research papers

Hedging

When writing academic research articles, it is important to be careful about the claims we are making. To “hedge” means to use vague language to soften our statements and avoid coming across as too confident or radical (we can never know the absolute truth!). Check out these examples of hedges!

Coherence and cohesion

It is common to find reviews which state that a paper is not “focused”. This can often be a result of a lack of coherence and cohesion, that is, making sure that the ideas in the article are linked to each other and to the aim of the paper.

Summarizing

Paraphrasing

When to cite

Committing plagiarism, that is, using someone else’s ideas and/or words without giving due credit, is a serious breach of scientific integrity that amounts to fraud. Take time to learn about when and how to cite appropriately.

The publication process

How to select a journal for publication

The cover letter for submission

How to respond to peer reviewers

What is open access?

Avoiding predatory journals