Article introductions by Anglophone authors usually follow the “Create a Research Space” or CARS model, which is composed of three moves. Find a description and example of each move in the following links:
When writing academic research articles, it is important to be careful about the claims we are making. To “hedge” means to use vague language to soften our statements and avoid coming across as too confident or radical (we can never know the absolute truth!). Check out these examples of hedges!
It is common to find reviews which state that a paper is not “focused”. This can often be a result of a lack of coherence and cohesion, that is, making sure that the ideas in the article are linked to each other and to the aim of the paper.
Committing plagiarism, that is, using someone else’s ideas and/or words without giving due credit, is a serious breach of scientific integrity that amounts to fraud. Take time to learn about when and how to cite appropriately.